Source: Livres Hebdo

Note: 2015 figures are based on sales generated in calendar year 2015, or, for companies that report based on fiscal years, in fiscal 2016. Companies must have sales of at least $175 million to be included. Data are from publicly available sources or from individual companies and include sales of books, journals, professional information, and digital products. Pannini and Disney are excluded from the ranking because they don’t report separate data for their publishing divisions. The listing was compiled by international publishing consultant Ruediger Wischenbart under the aegis of Livres Hebdo.